Thursday, March 31, 2011

Dynamic Views: One Blog, Many Views






A New Way of Teaching

Software Cocoon

Senses and motion control, according to Konner, are two important aspects of hominin evolution; we come from a particular combination of precocious sense development, and  late motor development.

I apply this insight to the redesign we are going through at this stage of our evolution. I am writing this at the outskirts of Iguala town, where I receive WiFi connection from the Spanish company Telefónica. I am in a quiet place good for thinking at this time of day.This HP Mini is an extension of my senses, and I can carry it with me.

I have been teaching this past three years with a series of blogs, that you can see looking at my Blogger profile. This is a prosthesis, an electronic prosthesis. This hardware allows me to connect with my software cocoon.

Right new this cocoon is not huge, I use the Google platform, Wikipedia, and the electronic arXiv, maintained at Los Alamos, and Cornell University, among other mirrors. I also read an inordinate amount of news through the New York Times, and La Jornada.

My method of teaching for a long time has been to depend heavily on the Information I have accumulated over my lifetime span of over sixty years. That has been increased by all the Information I use in the Internet. With this Movistar Broad Band service I just acquire, I became a Connected Professor.

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

New Hit: Washington University Professor

James Gosling to Google

Android is based on Java, Gosling invented Java, I guess he will be happy there.


I like Google's Larry,  better than Oracle's.

I guess we have a movie in the making: Larry vs. Larry: The War of the Java Soul.

Monday, March 28, 2011

Ali Tarhouni

I read about this economics professor from the University of Washington. There is a Wikipedia entry on him already [link], a Seattle News article here, and some notes on the NYT. here, and here.


Mexico to the Left

You may think that Mexico is down South, if you are reading this in the Northern Hemisphere, but I am talking politics here.

The leftist party PRD just announced they are going to go alone in the State of Mexico gubernatorial race. In previous occasions they have run together with the rightist party PAN.

Not anymore!

Heil to the Chief

I just watched the POUS Barack Obama.

Gaddafi must go!


Who Will Win the Information War?

From Al Jazeera English I am watching Empire, with this relevant question.

Information and Power.

WikiLeaks, Daniel Ellsberg,..

Amy Goodman, Carl Bernstein, ... from Columbia University.

Good program.

Clay Shirky

Sunday, March 27, 2011


Recently a friend of mine told me he had trouble getting traffic to his blog. I agreed with him on the then, personal character of this medium. I write for me, if somebody else finds it interesting, that's good too.

I have had close to 90,000 visitors in close to a year. 84,227 reads the meter right now. Not bad. Still this is a private site, maybe with some public interest. In the beginning I was writing for my Glenbard East High School students  in Lombard, Illinois. I doubt it if any of those kids is still reading this.

My son, and wife are doing well without my money, my daughter could use some though. In any case, I have a little bit of a respite, while I plan my graceful exit from Mexico, I am doing some research on the evolution of childhood.

My overall interest is Information: as a philosophical and physical category.

We have entered the Information Era. One possible date is the NYT WikiLeaks papers release date, of the US war in the Middle East.

Humans are Not Saints

Walking downtown today I saw a group of teenagers, girls and boys. I overheard comments on narco culture. Guerrero is a poor state, these kids do not have a future. Mexico is not producing high technology jobs. I believe they are cannon fodder for the war on a 'noun', drugs.

I imagine kids like these in Libya, and other African nations. I can see a scenario like in Cuarón's, The Children of Men.


Sad thing is; they are nice kids.

Soccer Phenomenon

Chicharito (Little Pea)

Saturday, March 26, 2011

Friday, March 25, 2011

Biutiful and Workers' Rights

This beautiful movie by the Mexican director Alejandro González Iñárritu, depicts the working conditions of immigrants in Barcelona. Watch DN! today.

One of the Best DN! Programs Ever

Remembering the one hundredth anniversary of the Triangle Factory Fire. 

Annelise Orleck

Saucy Dartmouth History professor, [link]

Today in DN!

We are Taking Over

Thursday, March 24, 2011

December 21, 2012

According to the government of Tabasco state in the Mayan region of Mexico, that day a new Era will begin.

I don't believe it. This is a cheap tourist plot to get some dollars in the Mexican depressed economy.

Shame on you: Mr. Alfonso de María y Campos Castelló.


"A 2009 study by the Maine Education Policy Research Institute at the University of Southern Maine concluded that laptops improve writing skills and have boosted state writing test scores. And, thanks to innovative laptop-based teaching techniques, 50 percent fewer ninth graders in Freeport, Maine now need remedial math."

Great News

My son gets another full scholarship for next year.

I feel proud.

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Baile del Perrito


Bacillariophyceae are a type of algae which can be used to monitor the quality of the water. They are being used in Mexico to monitor water conditions. The water does not look well.

Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Shit Happens

``“This is very unfair because she is a citizen,” he said, “and she is a very little girl.”''


My father was Guatemalan :(

Shit Happens

``Channel 4 News in Britain reported that six villagers were shot by American troops in rescuing one of the two airmen. None of the villagers — who were interviewed by a reporter in a nearby hospital — were killed, although a small boy may need to have a leg amputated.''


What if the Wars were about Something Else?

Is the Libyan War about human rights abuses by the Gaddafis?

What if it is about reliable oil supplies to Europe, and other western powers?

Then the present skirmishers will end up with another willing dictator.

In Mexico, I do not believe there is a war on drugs, nor a war on terror. One country cannot go to war against a noun. In Mexico, as I believe, like everywhere else, we are witnessing a war for natural resources. More children than we can feed, and bathe. Wars for water rights, and the like.

A hard rain is gonna fall.

Bob Dylan: Master of Words

Conversation with a Friend

Two gifted people, two very different life stories.

Pelé the best soccer player I've seen, and Diego Armando Maradona, both born poor, one in Brazil, the other a few hundred miles away in Argentina. The first built a capitalistic empire with all the money he collected by playing professionally, since he was sixteen!, The other, got fat, then addicted to cocaine, and lost the South African World Cup, as the manager of his country's team.

Two countries, with oil, Libya and Mexico, by all means our system down here is not perfect, but we have nothing like the Gaddafis' banana republic of Libya.

I hope our Libyan brothers and sisters, find a sensible solution to the mess the Gaddafis' are leaving.

Analysis of the Libyan war, [link]

The Way Things Are

Humanity has evolved by going beyond of the way things are. Today I comment on two pieces on the New York Times (Thanks Lincoln, for the free subscription).

One is about Muhammad Yunus, the people's banker, [link], the other is about Larry Page of Google, [link].

Both men have been sued by other interests, Yunus by his government of Bangladesh, and Page by his. Grameen, is bank for poor people (Yunus), Google (Page) wants to digitized ALL books. Copyright is the issue the American judge used to stop this enterprise, which I will call the library for poor people.

If we lived in a Utopian society there is no issue for either men. We do not, the way things are, dictate that moneyed people, get to profit from books and money.

Oh well.

No Android Device: Bummer

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Is it Getting Worse?

The Japanese accident is ominous.

Loss of coolant?


Radiation in the atmosphere?

Oh my!

Wednesday, March 16, 2011


``The 2012 budget's best-known victim is the Tevatron, the particle accelerator at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois. The DOE planned to close the facility this year as operations scaled up at the more powerful Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva in Switzerland. But the Tevatron's excellent performance prompted US researchers to request an extension, which the DOE turned down because it would have cost $35 million a year. Postdocs such as Elisa Pueschel of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, saw this coming three years ago. She moved from the Tevatron to the LHC, and says that many Americans there expect to stay abroad indefinitely.

The DOE opted to close the Tevatron in part to focus on other experiments, including several aiming to capture elusive particles of dark matter or study the properties of neutrinos. Lately, though, budget concerns have hit these plans too. The DOE and the NSF have yet to reach agreement on how to fund the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), to be based in Home­stake, South Dakota, which would host many of these experiments. This project is estimated to cost between $800 million and $900 million.

The United States leads the world in developing the sophisticated beams, accelerators and detectors used in neutrino and dark-matter experiments. But it may no longer be eager to host them. "Lower-cost countries will say we'll dig the hole to put your detectors in," says Milind Diwan of Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, a co-spokesman for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment, to be based at DUSEL.''

Nature News

Adam Riess

``"We are using the new camera on Hubble like a policeman's radar gun to catch the universe speeding," Riess said. "It looks more like it's dark energy that's pressing on the gas pedal." ''


Aristide Should Return to his Country

Amy Goodman in South Africa.


Tuesday, March 15, 2011


One of my students lost a younger brother. He was under treatment for a couple of weeks, today the students told me that he died.

Young people are not supposed to die.

In Haiti, and Japan, young people died.

What next?

Fragile Modern Life

``In the wake of Friday’s natural disaster in northern Japan, and the growing nuclear catastrophe that it touched off, residents here are fast learning that many things they have taken for granted — fully stocked supermarkets, precisely punctual trains, power for their electronics and cars — can readily slip beyond their reach.''


Monday, March 14, 2011

Supremacy of a Social Network

Nicholas Wade
Every time some human attribute is said to be unique, whether tool-making or language or warfare, biologists soon find some plausible precursor in animals that makes the ability less distinctive.

Still, humans are vastly different from other animals, however hard the difference may be to define. A cascade of events, some the work of natural selection, some just plain accidents, propelled the human lineage far from the destiny of being just another ape, down an unexpected evolutionary path to become perhaps the strangest blossom on the ample tree of life.

And what was the prime mover, the dislodged stone that set this eventful cascade in motion? It was, perhaps, the invention of weapons — an event that let human ancestors escape the brutal tyranny of the alpha male that dominated ape societies.

Biologists have little hesitation in linking humans’ success to their sociality. The ability to cooperate, to make individuals subordinate their strong sense of self-interest to the needs of the group, lies at the root of human achievement.

“Humans are not special because of their big brains,” says Kim Hill, a social anthropologist at Arizona State University. “That’s not the reason we can build rocket ships — no individual can. We have rockets because 10,000 individuals cooperate in producing the information.”

The two principal traits that underlie the human evolutionary success, in Dr. Hill’s view, are the unusual ability of nonrelatives to cooperate — in almost all other species, only closely related individuals will help each other — and social learning, the ability to copy and learn from what others are doing. A large social network can generate knowledge and adopt innovations far more easily than a cluster of small, hostile groups constantly at war with each other, the default state of chimpanzee society.

If a shift in social behavior was the critical development in human evolution, then the answer to how humans became unique lies in exploring how human societies first split away from those of apes.
Paleoanthropologists often assume that chimp societies are a reasonably good stand-in for the ancestral ape society that gave rise to the chimp and human lineages. Living hunter-gatherers may reflect those of long ago, since humans always lived this way until the first settled societies of 15,000 years ago.
The two species’ social structure could scarcely be more different. Chimp society consists of a male hierarchy, dominated by the alpha male and his allies, and a female hierarchy beneath it. The alpha male scores most of the paternities, cutting his allies in on others. The females try to mate with every male around, so each may think he’s the father and spare her child. How did a chimplike society ever give rise to the egalitarian, largely monogamous structure of hunter-gatherer groups?

A new and comprehensive answer to this question has been developed by Bernard Chapais of the University of Montreal. Dr. Chapais is a primatologist who has spent 25 years studying monkey and ape societies. Recently he devoted four years to reading the literature of social anthropology with the goal of defining the transition between nonprimate and human societies. His book, “Primeval Kinship,” was published in 2008.

Dr. Chapais sees the transition as a series of accidents, each of which let natural selection exploit new opportunities. Early humans began to walk on two legs because it was a more efficient way of getting around than knuckle-walking, the chimps’ method. But that happened to leave the hands free. Now they could gesture, or make tools.

It was a tool, in the form of a weapon, that made human society possible, in Dr. Chapais’s view. Among chimps, alpha males are physically dominant and can overpower any rival. But weapons are great equalizers. As soon as all males were armed, the cost of monopolizing a large number of females became a lot higher. In the incipient hominid society, females became allocated to males more equally. General polygyny became the rule, then general monogamy.

This trend led to the emergence of a critical change in sexual behavior: the replacement of the apes’ orgiastic promiscuity with the pair bond between male and female. With only one mate, for the most part, a male had an incentive to guard her from other males to protect his paternity.

The pair bond was the pivotal event that opened the way to hominid evolution, in Dr. Chapais’s view. On the physiological level, having two parents around allowed the infants to be dependent for longer, a requirement for continued brain growth after birth. Through this archway, natural selection was able to drive up the volume of the human brain until it eventually reached three times that of a chimpanzee.

On the social level, the presence of both parents revealed the genealogical structure of the family, which is at least half hidden in chimp societies. A chimp knows who its mother and siblings are, because it grows up with them, but not its father or father’s relatives. So the neighboring bands to which female chimps disperse at puberty, avoiding incest, are perceived as full of strange males and treated with unremitting hostility.

In the incipient hominid line, males could recognize their sisters and daughters in neighboring bands. They could also figure out that the daughter’s or sister’s mate shared a common genetic interest in the welfare of the woman’s children. The neighboring males were no longer foes to be killed in sight — they were the in-laws.

The presence of female relatives in neighboring bands became for the first time a bridge between them. It also created a new and more complex social structure. The bands who exchanged women with each other learned to cooperate, forming a group or tribe that would protect its territory from other tribes. Though cooperation became the norm within a tribe, tribes would wage warfare just as relentlessly as chimpanzee bands.

“There is no single pressure that made us human,” Dr. Chapais said in an interview. He sees human evolution as having progressed through a series of accidents. “The fact that you can recognize patrilineal kin was not selected for, but as soon as you had that you could move forward and establish peaceful relations with other groups,” he said.

The new social structure would have induced the development of different social behaviors. “I personally am hung up on cooperation as being what really differentiates humans from nonhuman apes,” said Michael Tomasello, a developmental psychologist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany. A system of cooperative bands “provides the kind of social infrastructure that can really get things going,” he said.

In a series of experiments comparing human and chimpanzee infants, Dr. Tomasello has shown that very young children have an urge to help others. One of these skills is what he calls shared intentionality, the ability to form a plan with others for accomplishing a joint endeavor. Children, but not chimps, will point at things to convey information, they will intuit others’ intentions from the direction of their gaze, and they will help others achieve a goal.

Early humans venturing out into the savannah from the apes’ ancestral forest refuge would have been surrounded by predators and in fierce competition for food. Cooperation may have been forced on them as a condition of existence. “Humans were put under some kind of collective pressure to collaborate in their gathering of food — they became obligate collaborators — in a way that their closest primate relatives were not,” Dr. Tomasello writes in a recent book, “Why We Cooperate.”

Humans wear the mark of their shared intentionality, he notes, in a small but significant feature — the whites of their eyes, which are three times larger than those of any other primate, presumably to help others follow the direction of gaze. Indeed, chimps infer the direction of gaze by looking at another’s head, but infants do so by watching the eyes.

So if ever a visiting Martian biologist should ask you what made your species the master of its planet, point first to your mother and all her relatives, then to the whites of your eyes, and only lastly to your prominent forehead.


Teaching Strategy

I never considered myself a particularly good teacher. I tend to ask myself questions and answer them. My students usually cannot follow me because I do not usually tell them what I am aiming at. I've done this for close to fifty years. At some point my students told me to change, I was around twenty years old, i.e. forty years ago. I accommodated and kept going alone. Now I am older and I feel I can produce a more useful peaceful coexistence with my students; without being condescending, more like being useful.

Here I write some thoughts on how to achieve this feat.

First I have to tell myself where am I going with all this searching.

I believe that a new synthesis is coming, our tools have put us in an auspicious situations during this first part of the twenty first century. I am not a singularitarian,  but I do believe that we live in very, very interesting times.

The teaching strategy that I have been following, a little bit unaware of its origins, is one based on a metaphor.

We are building software cocoons, and getting connected to a collective space; some memespace, some memeland. I owned a Personal Digital Assistant, made by HandSping.  I was eagerly waiting for the moment where it could be turned into a computer with telephone characteristics. Then, iPhone happened, and my HandSpring is somewhere in my garage, collecting dust.

My current bet is the iPad2, those are details though; my vision is this:

Edgar Altamirano Carmona: El Docente Conectado

In that document professor Altamirano outlines what he calls the Connected Professor. I myself have taught all my classes here in Chilpancingo, since February 2008, using some kind of Internet helper, for lack of a better name.

Professor Altamirano talks about living on the Internet, some Internet Immersion, like Language Immersion.. I share his views.

The first step of my teaching strategy then, is to become fluent online. I am fluent in Spanish and English, I am working to become fluent in Internet savvy, whatever that means.

I am moving in the direction of being one with the Internet.

That is the first step. The second step is the following:

I have to bring my students along. Professor Altamirano has created a space in facebook, it is here.

In conclusion: We are in the middle of a shift of the human experience, and it goes through digital assistants.

More to come.

Didactic Intelligence

I could start another Wikipedia article on this topic. I rather not, I did not have much success with Memeland, The entry was declared a hoax. I rather develop the idea here in the safety of my blog. Nobody, nobody but me has erased what is written here.

Project Zero

Reading professor Melvin Konner book: ``The Evolution of Childhood'', I found this:

``This is consistent with evidence that teaching occurs in all human cultures (see Chapter 27) and with the notion that our species could be called Homo docens because we have something like an instinct to teach (Barnett, 1968), which could have emerged with the genus Homo some 1.6 mya.''

p. 118 Konner.

I propose then, that Project Zero adds this  intelligence to their list.

I remember Bob Prigo from UCSB, he was a natural teacher, you can buy his book:

Making Physics Fun


Moving On

``Of all the things I’ve done at The Times, there may be none I’m prouder of than, in my critic’s days, championing “Sunday in the Park with George,” Stephen Sondheim’s and James Lapine’s 1984 musical about two artists in two different eras restless to create something new. For a quarter-century now, the show’s climactic song has inspired countless people in all walks of life when the time has come to take a leap. “Stop worrying where you’re going,” the Sondheim lyric goes. “Move on.”''


We are in this Together

What happened in Japan can happen to all of us. With no fault of their own they were hit with an earthquake of magnitude 9 in the Richter Scale.

It is eery to think that Japan was the first country to experience the destructive power of nuclear energy, and now they are threatened again with radioactive materials.

There are several threats humans are confronted with: meteorites, gamma ray bursts, solar wind storms, and on, and on.

I believe in the intelligence and resilience of the Japanese people. Maybe it sounds completely awkward, but the Haitian people have shown great resilience after an Earthquake hit their land. Two extremes in how they responded, one highly technological, and the other almost as hunter-gatherers; but all human beings are highly skilled in survival; if we weren't like this, we would not be here now.

All my heart to my brothers and sisters of Japan, and Haiti.

Earthquake Japan


Saturday, March 12, 2011

Slim Helu

Forbes Rich Folks List Now Includes Six Facebookers

The Forbes Rich List for 2011 is out, and not only has Carlos Slim retained his title as the world's richest person, he's extended his lead of his closest rivals. Once again in second place is former Microsoft CEO BIll Gates, and Warren Buffett of Berkshire Hathaway is in third.

Roel Ayala Mata

"El subdirector de monitoreo y análisis de la Subsecretaría de Protección civil estatal, Roel Ayala Mata, explicó que fenómenos de este tipo se deben a movimientos sísmicos de gran intensidad, porque generan incertidumbre en la fauna marina."

The undersecretary of monitoring and analysis of the Civil Protection Undersecretary, Roel Ayala Mata, explained that these kind of phenomena are due to great intensity seismic movements, because they confuse marine fauna.

My friend Captain Ayala is explaining why so many mackerel and other fishes ended up in the tummies of tourists due to the tsunami in Acapulco.

New Hit

Adolfo Gilly on Rebellion

This great Argentinean-Mexican intellectual writes today in La Jornada about the current uprising in Libya. I agree with him, more than with Fidel Castro. I won'r translate his piece, I will just point out that Fidel has professional   translators, and Gilly doesn't.

Fidel Castro on Muammar el Gaddafi

Reflections of Fidel

NATO, war, lies and business

(Taken from CubaDebate)

AS some people know, in September of 1969, Muammar al-Gaddafi, a Bedouin Arab soldier of unusual character and inspired by the ideas of the Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser, promoted within the heart of the Armed Forces a movement which overthrew King Idris I of Libya, almost a desert country in its totality, with a sparse population, located to the north of Africa between Tunisia and Egypt.

Libya’s significant and valuable energy resources were progressively being discovered.
Born into the heart of a Bedouin community, nomadic desert shepherds in the region of Tripoli, Gaddafi was profoundly anti-colonialist. It is known that a paternal grandfather died fighting against the Italian invaders when Libya was invaded by the latter in 1911. The colonial regime and fascism changed everyone’s lives. It is likewise said that his father was imprisoned before earning his daily bread as an industrial worker.

Even Gaddafi’s adversaries confirm that he stood out for his intelligence as a student; he was expelled from high school for his anti-monarchical activities. He managed to enroll in another school and later to graduate in law at the University of Benghazi, aged 21. He then entered the Benghazi Military College, where he created the Union of Free Officers Movement, subsequently completing his studies in a British military academy.

These antecedents explain the notable influence that he later exercised in Libya and over other political leaders, whether or not they are now for or against Gaddafi.

He initiated his political life with unquestionably revolutionary acts.

In March 1970, in the wake of mass nationalist protests, he achieved the evacuation of British soldiers from the country and, in June, the United States vacated the large airbase close to Tripoli, which was handed over to military instructors from Egypt, a country allied with Libya.

In 1970, a number of Western oil companies and banking societies with the participation of foreign capital were affected by the Revolution. At the end of 1971, the same fate befell the famous British Petroleum. In the agricultural sector all Italian assets were confiscated, and the colonialists and their descendants were expelled from Libya.

State intervention was directed toward the control of the large companies. Production in that country grew to become one of the highest in the Arab world. Gambling was prohibited, as was alcohol consumption. The legal status of women, traditionally limited, was elevated.

The Libyan leader became immersed in extremist theories as much opposed to communism as to capitalism. It was a stage in which Gaddafi devoted himself to theorizing, which would be meaningless to include in this analysis, except to note that the first article of the Constitutional Proclamation of 1969, established the "Socialist" nature of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

What I wish to emphasize is that the United States and its NATO allies were never interested in human rights.

The pandemonium that occurred in the Security Council, in the meeting of the Human Rights Council based in Geneva, and in the UN General Assembly in New York, was pure theater.

I can perfectly comprehend the reactions of political leaders embroiled in so many contradictions and sterile debates, given the intrigue of interests and problems which they have to address.

All of us are well aware that status as a permanent member, veto power, the possession of nuclear weapons and more than a few institutions, are sources of privilege and self-interest imposed on humanity by force. One can be in agreement with many of them or not, but never accept them as just or ethical measures.

The empire is now attempting to turn events around to what Gaddafi has done or not done, because it needs to militarily intervene in Libya and deliver a blow to the revolutionary wave unleashed in the Arab world. Through now not a word was said, silence was maintained and business was conducted.

Whether a latent Libyan rebellion was promoted by yankee intelligence agencies or by the errors of Gaddafi himself, it is important that the peoples do not let themselves be deceived, given that, very soon, world opinion will have enough elements to know what to believe.

In my opinion, and as I have expressed since the outset, the plans of the bellicose NATO had to be condemned.

Libya, like many Third World countries, is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and other international organizations, via which relations are established independently of economic and social system.

Briefly: the Revolution in Cuba, inspired by Marxist-Leninist and Martí principles, had triumphed in 1959 at 90 miles from the United States, which imposed the Platt Amendment on us and was the proprietor of our country’s economy.

Almost immediately, the empire promoted against our people dirty warfare, counterrevolutionary gangs, the criminal economic blockade and the mercenary invasion of the Bay of Pigs, guarded by an aircraft carrier and its marines ready to disembark if the mercenary force secured certain objectives.

Barely a year and a half later, it threatened us with the power of its nuclear arsenal. A war of that nature was about to break out.

All the Latin American countries, with the exception of Mexico, took part in the criminal blockade which is still in place, without our country ever surrendering. It is important to recall that for those lacking historical memory.

In January 1986, putting forward the idea that Libya was behind so-called revolutionary terrorism, Reagan ordered the severing of economic and commercial relations with that country.

In March, an aircraft carrier force in the Gulf of Sirte, within what Libya considered its national waters, unleashed attacks which destroyed a number of naval units equipped with rocket launchers and coastal radar systems which that country had acquired in the USSR.

On April 5, a discotheque in West Berlin frequented by U.S. soldiers was the target of a plastic explosives attack, in which three people died, two of them U.S. soldiers, and many people were injured.

Reagan accused Gaddafi and ordered the Air Force to respond. Three squadrons took off from 6th Fleet aircraft carriers and bases in the United Kingdom, and attacked with missiles and bombs seven military targets in Tripoli and Benghazi. Some 40 people died, 15 of them civilians. Warned in advance of the bombardments, Gaddafi gathered together his family and was leaving his residence located in the Bab Al Aziziya military complex south of the capital.

 The evacuation had not been completed when a missile directly hit the residence, his daughter Hanna died and another two of his children were wounded. That act was widely rejected; the UN General Assembly passed a resolution of condemnation given what was a violation of the UN Charter and international law. The Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League and the OAU did likewise in energetic terms.

On December 21, 1988, a Pan Am Boeing 747 flying from London to New York disintegrated in full flight when a bomb exploded aboard, the wreckage fell on the locality of Lockerbie and the tragedy cost the lives of 270 people of 21 nationalities.

Initially, the United States suspected Iran, in reprisal for the death of 290 people when an Airbus belonging to its state line was brought down. According to the yankees, investigations implicated two Libyan intelligence agents. Similar accusations against Libya were made in the case of the French airline on the Brazzaville-N’Djamena-Paris route, implicating Libyan officials whom Gaddafi refused to extradite for acts that he categorically denied.

A sinister legend was fabricated against him, with the participation of Reagan and Bush Senior.

From 1975 to the final stage of the Regan administration, Cuba dedicated itself to its internationalist duties in Angola and other African nations. We were aware of the conflicts developing in Libya or around her via readings and testimonies from people closely linked to that country and the Arab world, as well as impressions we retained from many figures in different countries with whom we had contact during those years.

Many known African leaders with whom Gaddafi maintained close relations made efforts to find a solution to the tense relations between Libya and the United Kingdom.

The Security Council had imposed sanctions on Libya which began to be overcome when Gaddafi agreed to the trial, under specific conditions, of the two men accused of the plane sabotage over Scotland.

Libyan delegations began to be invited to inter-European meetings. In July 1999 London initiated the reestablishment of full diplomatic relations with Libya after some additional concessions.

In September of that year, European Union ministers agreed to revoke the restrictive trade measures imposed in 1992.

On December 2, Massimo D’Alema, the Italian prime minister, made the first visit to Libya by a European head of government.

With the disappearance of the USSR and the European socialist bloc, Gaddafi decided to accept the demands of the United States and NATO.

When I visited Libya in May 2001, he showed me the ruins left by the treacherous attack during which Reagan murdered his daughter and almost exterminated his entire family.

In early 2002, the State Department announced that diplomatic talks between the United States and Libya were underway.

In May, Libya was once again included on the list of states sponsoring terrorism although, in January, President George W. Bush had not mentioned the African country in his famous speech on members of the "axis of evil."

At the beginning of 2003, in accordance with the economic agreement on compensation reached between Libya and the plaintiffs, the United Kingdom and France, the UN Security Council lifted its 1992 sanctions against Libya.

Before the end of 2003, Bush and Tony Blair reported an agreement with Libya, which had submitted documentation to British and U.S. intelligence experts about conventional weapons programs and ballistic missiles with a range of more than 300 kilometers. Officials from both countries had already visited a number of installations. It was the result of many months of conversation between Tripoli and Washington, as Bush himself revealed.

Gaddafi kept his disarmament promises. Within five months Libya handed over the five units of Scud-C missiles with a range of 800 km and hundreds of Scud-B which have a range exceeding the 300 kilometers of defensive short-range missiles.

As of October, 2002, a marathon of visits to Tripoli began: Berlusconi, in October 2002; José María Aznar, in September 2003; Berlusconi again in February, August and October of 2004; Blair, in March of 2004; the German Schröeder, in October of that year; Jacques Chirac, November 2004. Everybody happy. Money talks.

Gaddafi toured Europe triumphantly. He was received in Brussels in April of 2004 by Romano Prodi, president of the European Commission; in August of that year the Libyan leader invited Bush to visit his country; Exxon Mobil, Chevron, Texaco and Conoco Philips established renewed oil extraction operations through joint ventures.

In May of 2006, the United States announced the removal of Libya from its list of nations harboring terrorists and established full diplomatic relations.

In 2006 and 2007, France and the U.S. signed accords for cooperation in nuclear development for peaceful ends; in May, 2007, Blair returned to visit Gaddafi in Sirte. British Petroleum signed a contract it described as "enormously important," for the exploration of gas fields.

In December of 2007, Gaddafi made two trips to France to sign military and civilian equipment contracts for 10 billion euros, and to Spain where he met with President José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. Contracts worth millions were signed with important NATO countries.

What has now brought on the precipitous withdrawal of U.S. and other NATO members' embassies?

It all seems extremely strange.

George W. Bush, father of the stupid anti-terrorist war, said on September 20, 2011 to west Point cadets, "Our security will require … the military you will lead, a military that must be ready to strike at a moment's notice in any dark corner of the world. … to be ready for preemptive action when necessary to defend our liberty and to defend our lives.

"We must root out terrorist cells in 60 countries or more … with our friends and allies, we have to stop their proliferation and confront regimes which harbor or support terrorism, as is required in each case."

What might Obama think of that speech?

What sanctions will the Security Council impose on those who have killed more than a million civilians in Iraq and those who everyday are murdering men, women and children in Afghanistan, where just recently the angry population took to the streets to protest the massacre of innocent children?

An AFP dispatch from Kabul, dated today, March 9, reveals, "Last year was the most lethal for civilians in the nine-year war between the Taliban and international forces in Afghanistan, with almost 2,800 deaths, 15% more than in 2009, a United Nations report indicated on Wednesday, underlining the human cost of the conflict for the population.

"… The Taliban insurrection has intensified and gained ground in these last few years, with guerrilla actions beyond its traditional bastions in the South and East.

"At exactly 2,777, the number of civilian deaths in 2010 increased by 15% as compared to 2009," the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan annual report indicated.

"On March 3, President Barack Obama expressed his profound condolences to the Afghan people for the nine children killed, as did U.S. General David Petraeus, commander in chief of the ISAF and Secretary of Defense Robert Gates.

"… The UNAMA report emphasizes that the number of civilian deaths is four times greater than the number of international forces soldiers killed in combat during the same year.

"So far, 2010 has been the most deadly for foreign soldiers in the nine years of war, with 711 dead, confirming that the Taliban's guerilla war has intensified despite the deployment of 30,000 U.S. reinforcements last year."

Over the course of 10 days, in Geneva and in the United Nations, more than 150 speeches were delivered about violations of human rights, which were repeated million of times on television, radio, Internet and in the written press.

Cuba's Foreign Minister Bruno Rodríguez, in his remarks March 1, 2011 before Foreign Relations ministers in Geneva, said:

"Humanity's conscience is repulsed by the deaths of innocent people under any circumstances, anyplace. Cuba fully shares the worldwide concern for the loss of civilian lives in Libya and hopes that its people are able to reach a peaceful and sovereign solution to the civil war occurring there, with no foreign interference, and guarantee the integrity of that nation."

Some of the final paragraphs of his speech were scathing.

"If the essential human right is the right to life, will the Council be ready to suspend the membership of states that unleash war?

"Will it suspend states which finance and supply military aid utilized by recipient states for mass, flagrant and systematic violations of human rights and attacks on the civilian population, like those taking place in Palestine?

"Will it apply measures to powerful countries which are perpetuating extra-judicial executions in the territory of other states with the use of high technology, such as smart bombs and drone aircraft?

"What will happen with states which accept secret illegal prisons in their territories, facilitate the transit of secret flights with kidnapped persons aboard, or participate in acts of torture?

We fully share the valiant position of the Bolivarian leader Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA).

We are against the internal war in Libya, in favor of immediate peace and respect for the lives and rights of all citizens, without foreign intervention, which would only serve to prolong the conflict and NATO interests.

Friday, March 11, 2011

Humans are More Cooperative than Previously Thought

''Modern humans have lived as hunter-gatherers for more than 90 percent of their existence as a species. If living hunter-gatherers are typical of ancient ones, the new data about their social pattern has considerable bearing on early human evolution.''


The Kids are Alright!

High School Kids Rising Up in Wisconsin.

Thursday, March 10, 2011

Kidnappings in Huitzuco

Recently I have been traveling to Huitzuco often. This is the town where my mother grew up. Today I was going to Iguala to teach my class of Education Theory. At least seven Army trucks passed us by, coming from Huitzuco and going towards Iguala.

La Jornada publishes this tonight:

"Detiene Sedena a 10 presuntos secuestradores en Guerrero

Tras una denuncia ciudadana, militares acudieron a un domicilio y fueron recibidos a balazos. Un soldado resultó herido.

Publicado: 10/03/2011 19:56

México, DF. La Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional (Sedena) informó que “al explotar una información obtenida por medio de una denuncia ciudadana anónima, relacionada con un grupo de presuntos secuestradores”, implementó un operativo en las inmediaciones del poblado Paso de Morelos, municipio de Huitzuco, Guerrero, y al acercarse a un domicilio sospechoso, los soldados fueron recibidos a tiros.

Entre los atacantes se encontraban los miembros de una familia, quienes al verse superados se rindieron, resultando un soldado herido.

Informó lo anterior la dependencia la cual añadió que diez agresores –cuya identidad se desconoce– fueron detenidos y les fueron aseguradas tres armas largas, cinco armas cortas, doce kilogramos de mariguana y tres vehículos."

La Jornada

The Army informed that "exploiting anonymous information, about  suspected kidnappers", they went to Paso Morelos, Huitzuco county, in Guerrero, and when approaching a suspicious house, the soldiers were fired at.

Among the attackers there were members of a family, who surrendered when they realized they were outnumbered, a soldier was wounded.

While informing this, the Army added that ten unknown attackers were detained, and three long arms, five short ones, twelve kilos of marijuana, and three vehicles were confiscated.

Now I know why those Army vehicles were there, and somehow I don't feel safe.

Wednesday, March 09, 2011

What Happens When Power Loses?

Our governor is leaving among a scandal. He mismanaged people's money for health services. Particularly the Popular Insurance (Seguro Popular); the Mexican solution for those without health coverage. Conveniently the offices burned down yesterday nearby from where I'm sitting.

I just watched Naomi Klein with Amy Goodman in DN!. Powerful people will take more violent actions against us; just like despots in the North of Africa. We are pawns in their power struggles.

Here in Mexico, Carlos Slim Helú, and Emilio Azcárraga Jean, are fighting over who owns the hearts and minds of Mexicans.

I am afraid.

It is like if Berlusconi took over Mexico to bed all the young Mexican girls he could.

The answer to the question posed in this note is: They kill, and take back what they think is theirs.

Thanks Naomi and Amy.

Tuesday, March 08, 2011

Telmex vs. Televisa

``(Updates with details of Telmex's lines, controversy between Slim and other phone operators, TV companies.)
By Anthony Harrup 
MEXICO CITY (Dow Jones)--Mexico's largest phone company Telefonos de Mexico SAB (TMX, TELMEX.MX) said Tuesday it plans to split into two companies, one of which will serve rural and marginalized areas where competitors haven't invested.

The decision by the company controlled by telecommunications magnate Carlos Slim aims, in part, to counter criticism about the firm's dominant position in fixed-line telephony in the country, where it owns about 80% of the fixed lines.

In a press release, Telmex said the new company, which it expects to call Telmex Social, will serve the 46% of the country "in which there is no economic interest of any competitor" to invest and develop telecommunications, and in which Telmex has invested at low profit and sometimes at a loss.
Assets, liabilities and equity would be divided up accordingly, Telmex said.

Telmex, which is 59.4% owned by Slim-controlled America Movil (AMX.MX, AMX), reported 15.6 million lines in operation at the end of 2010, of which 1.8 million were in areas not served by competitors. Most of the revenue from those lines comes from long-distance and call completion.
The new company would pay the same interconnection rates to Telmex as competitors, Telmex said.
The planned division, which company officials have commented on in the past as an idea to be considered, would clarify the differences in Telmex's operations in those areas, the company said.
The decision to go ahead with the split coincides with a complex dispute pitting America Movil, Telmex and other Slim companies against the country's two main television broadcasters-- Grupo Televisa SAB (TV, TLEVISA.MX) and TV Azteca SAB (TVAZTCA.MX)--smaller phone operators, and cable TV companies.

Slim withdrew advertising from Televisa this year in a disagreement over rates. Earlier, Televisa called on antitrust regulators to investigate Telmex's billing and marketing agreement with start-up satellite TV service Dish Mexico. While Televisa, through its cable holdings, offers TV, phone and broadband Internet, Telmex is still awaiting government clearance to directly offer television.

Following the spat with Televisa, TV Azteca refused to sell Slim advertising space unless America Movil's cell phone unit company Telcel lowered interconnection rates for Grupo Iusacell.
TV Azteca, whose controlling shareholder Ricardo Salinas Pliego also controls Iusacell, later said it's willing to sell Slim advertising, but called for broad debate on interconnection.

Then last week, several dozen cable, phone and broadcasting companies called on the government to act to lower the interconnection rates charged by Telcel, which has about 70% of the country's mobile phone subscribers.

Telcel has offered them the same 95 peso cents (8 U.S. cents) a minute rate it agreed to with No. 2 mobile operator Telefonica SA (TEF), but opponents say it should be less than half that.

The Communications and Transport Ministry said authorities are working to promote competition, and rejected assertions by phone companies that it has failed to act on complaints against Telmex and Telcel.
The planned division of Telmex requires government and corporate approvals. Telmex L shares traded on the Mexican stock exchange closed down 1.2% Tuesday, at 10.75 pesos ($0.90).''


E Pur Si Move!

Galileo never recanted to power, read here.

Very soon the powerful Energy lobby that hijacked the Tea Party movement is going to pass a terrible regulation. I reserve the word law, to real laws that are always followed.

Read about this coming laughing stock of the whole world on the NYT.

Dowd on Brown

Long live catholics!


US Lagging

When China and other countries are investing in the future, the US is balancing the budget on the backs of the weakest ones, the children.

That seems unfair and stupid.

Thanks Sarah Palin.

``The net effect is that the United States will continue to massively subsidize consumption and starve investment. This is exactly the opposite of what history tells us produces long-term economic growth. The American economy is already far too focused on consumption and credit. And not only will this approach have limited benefits to the budget - any fiscal discipline that does not tackle entitlement spending is a charade - but we are cutting in precisely the areas where we should increase spending. From China to South Korea to Germany, countries are making large investments for future growth at the moment we are pruning such expenditures.''

``America's growth and prosperity over the past few decades have been consequences of major investments made in the 1950s and 1960s. Some of those are the interstate highway system; a public education system that was the envy of the world; massive funding for science and technology that produced the semi-conductor industry, large-scale computing, the Internet and the global positioning system. When we look back in 20 years, what investments will we point to that created the next generation of growth for the next generation of Americans?´

Fareed Zakaria

Gaddafi: They Came to Misguide our Children

Muammar Gaddafi thinks foreigners came to brainwash Libyan children.

He is right, Libyan children now think like all our children, all over the world. They have joined us, and leave him behind history.

Goodbye Colonel. 

SpreadSheet for the iPhone!



End of Zeferino Torreblanca Galindo

The Governor of Guerrero leaves office at the end of this month. Yestereday almost at midnight, intruders went into the Seguro Popular, (Popular Insurance) offices of his administration, a few blocks away from where I am writing this, and set it on fire.

The note in Spanish  is here.

Very convenient.

``Durante las últimas semanas la Secretaría de Salud ha sido cuestionada sobre posibles malos manejos de recursos económicos y que casi al concluir la administración del gobernador, Zeferino Torreblanca Galindo, se reportan faltantes millonarios, especialmente del programa de Seguro Popular.''

During the last weeks the Health Ministry has been questioned about mishandling of economic resources and that almost at the end of the administration of governor Zeferino Torreblanca Galindo, there are millions missing, especially from the Popular Insurance program.

The fire reported in this note is convenient.

Are American Newscasters Moving to Qatar?

Al Jazeera is hiring. Tickets to Qatar; anybody?


As part of the DOE budget process, last week we presented the program of the laboratory to the Office of High Energy Physics (OHEP) under three budget scenarios for the fiscal years 2011 through 2015. The guidance for these scenarios came from OHEP. The lowest scenario was one in which the program was cut by 5 percent in FY2012 relative to the FY2010 enacted level and stayed flat, without inflation adjustments, through FY2015. The middle scenario was one where we essentially stayed flat from FY2010 through FY2015, without inflation adjustments. In the top scenario we were encouraged to ask for what we need to accomplish an optimal program by adding selectively to a limited set of initiatives. At the end of the day we will live in only one scenario, possibly not even one that we presented. However, each of the three scenarios is important. Together they describe where we would make cuts if we had to cut and where we would add funding should this become possible. These scenarios allow our program managers to propose and defend budgets for HEP in the context of the overall Office of Science.

Articulating clearly the program in high energy physics has never been more important. The President’s FY2012 Budget Request to Congress has made clear priority choices, with a strong emphasis on science that addresses issues in clean energy. That is not where we make our mark. At the same time the administration is supporting particle physics with a program that allows us to transition to new programs within a relatively flat budget profile. The Secretary of Energy, in his testimony to the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, made it clear that the funding for particle physics can increase when we start building new, large facilities that now do not fit within a flat budget profile.

The scenarios we worked hard to understand could, of course, be thrown out the window if some of the present cuts proposed in Congress are applied. During the trip to Washington I spent a day visiting various Congressional offices. The picture that emerges is quite murky. The House bill that cuts 20 percent from the Office of Science in the current fiscal year will go to the Senate where it is likely to be defeated. The Senate has introduced its own bill cutting “only” 5 percent from the Office of Science. It is not even clear that such a bill will pass the Senate, never mind the House. At some point all of this should lead to an agreement by the House, the Senate and the Administration to tackle the deficit in a comprehensive manner. How that will play out, and what effects the various pressure points like a government shutdown or the need to raise the debt limit will have, are all up in the air.

One thing that is clear so far is the lack of understanding of the role of the Office of Science. Both in the House and the Senate bills, the Office of Science is cut significantly more than the NSF, NIH or NASA science programs. There is an immediate and acute need to explain that the Office of Science is an integral part of the scientific enterprise of our nation, provides the major scientific facilities, is the major supporter of the physical sciences and is no less important than the other major scientific agencies.


Android No. 1


Monday, March 07, 2011

Carlos Slim Should Give More


Gates no longer richest man on Earth.


``Human social behavior has an evolutionary basis. This was the thesis in Edward O. Wilson’s book “Sociobiology” that caused such a stir, even though most evolutionary biologists accept that at least some social behaviors, like altruism, could be favored by natural selection''

``The book traces the development of political order from the earliest human societies, which were small groups of hunter-gatherers. The first major social development, in Dr. Fukuyama’s view, was the transition from hunter-gatherer bands to tribes, made possible by religious ideas that united large numbers of people in worship of a common ancestor. Since a tribe could quickly mobilize many men for warfare, neighboring bands had to tribalize too, or be defeated.''

``Just as institutions are hard to change, so too they are hard to develop. “Poor countries are poor not because they lack resources,” Dr. Fukuyama writes, “but because they lack effective political institutions.” The absence of a strong rule of law, in his view, is “one of the principal reasons why poor countries can’t achieve higher rates of growth.”''


Dr. Melvin Konner studies hunter-gatherers today. I do believe a synthesis is coming.

Hands by Lev Cantoral and Dan English


I have watched this short several times now. First it was the issue of time which I commented on (see the link above), and now is about Hands.

Whether intended or not, Lev had an abortion. His puppets were thrown in the garbage can. His artistic tools disappeared, and mere hands appeared.


Software Anybody?

Paul Krugman wrote an important article on the NYT about software.

The belief that software will make experts more useful, is wrong. Employers can get away with hiring less people, making more money, with more software.

I see a pattern here. Kids using calculators and goofing off on their basic arithmetic skills, College students copying and pasting, even Ph.D. thesis, like Al Gaddafi in the London School of Economics, in that case I should add that the money Libya gave the school also helped, but I digress.

The pattern is that most people are happy to produce the same with more powerful tools.

Employers are hurting themselves, and consequently hurting all of us, when they DO NOT KNOW, they can do more with powerful tools, the same, or why not, even more workers.

Oh well.

Philip Phillips

We would like to thank E. Fradkin, T. Hughes and J. Jottar for discussions. E. M. and P. P. acknowledge financial support from the NSF DMR-0940992 and the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, a DOE Energy Frontier Research Center, Award Number DE-AC0298CH1088.
R.G.L. is supported by DOE grant FG02-91-ER40709.''


Eduardo Fradkin is Argentinean, and Professor Richard Blankenbecler from SLAC, once thought I was `that' Eduardo. No I am not.


Senator Dianne Feinstein


Energy & Water Appropriations Subcommittee

Senator Lamar Alexander

Ranking Member

Energy & Water Appropriations Subcommittee

March 1, 2011

Dear Chairman Feinstein and Sen. Alexander,

We write in regards to the current proposed budget cuts on science, and the impact the cuts would have on the competitiveness of this nation, both in the short and long term. The economic health and world leadership of this country depends on an unbroken cycle of innovation, rooted in our ability to attract and educate new waves of creative young scientists and engineers, each year. It is this cycle of innovation, whose continuation depends on funding for basic research, that drives both basic and applied sciences, and the creation of new technologies and treatments that define and improve the quality of everyday life.

In order for the cycle to remain unbroken, and for the nation’s position of leadership to continue, basic research needs to be supported, even when the times demand strict fiscal responsibility. One never knows where the next transformative breakthrough will emerge, or who the next young scientist will be that creates it.

The proposed cuts to the Department of Energy Office of Science, the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Standards and Technology would result in the immediate cessation of many scientifically critical activities, due in part to the layoff of thousands of scientists and engineers. The cuts would have a severe impact on cutting-edge research in areas such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, high-speed computing, advanced materials and photonics, as well as high energy physics, nuclear physics and fusion energy sciences.

At a time when we are seeking to spark economic growth and encourage talented young people to pursue careers in science and engineering, reducing federal support for science research and education is counterproductive. It is basic research that motivates many young people to study science. Such cuts will only hurt our competitiveness, especially at a time when emerging economies such as China and India are ramping up their investments in scientific research and education, and are learning to form their own generations of young innovators.

As young scientists and our mentors, we ask that you make science a priority and fund basic research at a level that provides long term growth as an investment, both in our future and our nation’s future. There are many exciting questions that we can only address if provided sufficient resources, not only this year but in the coming years as well. The tools and techniques that we develop in pursuit of these answers will have a lasting benefit to our country and society.


1. Robert Roser, Fermilab, Batavia IL

2. Ben Kilminster, Fermilab, Batavia IL

3. Katherine Copic, Columbia University, New York, NY

4. Andrey Elagin, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

5. Elisabetta Pianori University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

6. Robyn Madrak, Fermilab, Batavia IL

7. Daniel Whiteson, UC Irvine, Irvine CA

8. Farrukh Azfar, Oxford, Batavia IL

9. Satyajit Behari, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore <d

10. Tom Schwarz, UC Davis, Davis CA

11. Ford Garberson, University of Chicago, Chicago IL

12. Andrey Loginov, Yale University, New Haven CT

13. Heather Ray, University of Florida, Gainseville Fl

14. Emma Alexander, Yale, Atlanta, Georgia

15. Jonathan S. Wilson, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

16. Rob Forrest, UC Davis, Davis CA

17. Dr Charles Plager, UCLA, Los Angeles CA

18. Kai Yi, University of Iowa, Iowa City Iowa

19. Bodhitha Jayatilaka, Duke University, Durham NC

20. Matthew Heintze, University of Florida, Gainseville FL

21. Yen-Chu Chen Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

22. Kyle Knoepfel, Fermilab, Batavia IL

23. Deepak Kar, University of Dresden, Dresden Germany

24. Alison Lister, UC Davis, Davis CA

25. Valeria Bartsch, University of Susex, Falmer UK

26. Harinder Singh Bawa, UC Fresno, Fresno CA

27. Heather Gerberich, University of Illinios, Urbana IL

28. Chang Seong Moon, Seoul National University, Seoul Korea

29. Tingjun Yang, Fermilab, Batavia IL

30. Sebastian Grinstein, IFAE Barcelona, Spain

31. Max Goncharov, MIT, Boston MA

32. Michal Kreps, University of Warwick, Coventry UK

33. Giulia Manca, University of Cagliari, Cagliari Italy

34. Mousumi Datta, Fermilab, Batavia IL

35. Bonnie T. Fleming, Yale University New Haven CT

36. Sasha Pronko, LBL, Berkeley CA

37. Efe Yazgan, Postdoctoral Research Associate, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas

38. Diego Tonelli, Fermilab, Batavia IL

39. Sergo Jindariani, Fermilab, Batavia IL

40. Meghan McAteer, University of Texas, Austin TX

41. Olga Norniella, UIUC, Urbana Champaign IL

42. David Cox, UC Davis, Davis CA

43. Dongwook Jang, Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA

44. Justin Pilot, OSU, Columbus OH

45. Kirsten Tollefson, Michigan State, East Lansing MI

46. John Conway, UC Davis, Davis CA

47. Robin Erbacher, UC Davis, Davis CA

48. Leo Jenner, Fermilab, Batavia IL

49. Paola Garosi, University of Siena, Siena Italy

50. Xinchun Tian University of South Carolina, Columbia SC

51. Karen Bland, Baylor University, Waco Tx

52. Enrique Palencia, CERN, Geneva Switzerland

53. Joseph Walding, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg VA

54. Marcelle Soares-Santos, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

55. Prashant Subbaro, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA

56. Halley Brown, Fermilab, Batavia IL

57. J.P. Chou, Brown University, Providence RI

58. Sudhir Malik, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Nebraska

59. Christian Pascal Graf, UIC, Chicago IL

60. Matthew Worcester, University of Chicago, Chicago IL

61. Ritoban Basu Thakur, Fermilab, Batavia IL

62. Carley Kopecky, UC Davis, Davis CA

63. Zeynep Isvan, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA

64. Derek Strom, UIC, Chicago IL

65. Dr Christina Mesropian, Rockefeller University, NYC NY

66. Ayesh Jayasinghe, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma

67. Gary Cheng, Columbia, NYC NY

68. Suneel Dutt, Panjab University, Chandigarh India

69. James Monk, UCL, London UK

70. Aaron Morris, Northern Illinois Univ. Dekalb IL

71. Jacob Linacre, Fermilab, Batavia IL

72. Ioana Anghel, UIC, Chicago IL

73. Ian Howley University of Texas, Arlington TX

74. Karolos Potamianos, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN

75. Shulamit Moed Sher, Harvard University, Boston MA

76. Jason St. John, Boston University, Boston MA

77. Bruno Casal, ETH Zurich, Zurich Switzerland

78. Gavril Giurgiu, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD

79. Alexander Paramonov, Argonne National Lab, Argonne IL

80. Bari Osmanov, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

81. Jeffrey Kubo, Fermilab, Batavia IL

82. Adam Patch, Yale University, New Haven IL

83. Anna Mazzacane, Fermilab, Batavia IL

84. Michael Peter Cooke, Fermilab, Batavia IL

85. Benjamin Auerbach, Yale University, New Haven CT

86. Warren Clarida, University of Iowa, Iowa City IA

87. Ricky Fok, University of Oregon, Eugene OR

88. Samvel Khalatyan, UIC Chicago IL

89. Miguel Mondragon, Fermilab, Batavia IL

90. Federico Sforza, PISA University, PISA Italy

91. Jon Wilson, OSU, Columbus Ohio

92. Jonathan Asaadi, Texas A&M, College Station TX

93. Edward Laird, Princeton, Princeton NJ

94. Dean Andrew Hidas, Rutgers University, Piscataway NJ

95. Irkli Chakaberia, Kansas State University, Manhattan KS

96. Mark Mathis, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg VA

97. Alejandro de la Puente, Notre Dame, South Bend Indiana

98. Yaofu Zhou, IIT, Chicago IL

99. Sarah Lockwitz, Yale University, New Haven CT

100. Douglas Orbaker, University of Rochester, Rochester NY

101. Joseph Haley, Northeastern University, Boston MA

102. Steve Nahn, MIT, Boston MA

103. Harvey Newman, Caltech, Pasadena CA

104. Austin Napier, Tufts, Medford MA

105. Sarah Demers, Yale, New Haven CT

106. JoAnne Hewett, SLAC/Stanford, Stanford CA

107. Jean-Luc Vay, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

108. Tatiana Rodriguez, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA

109. Evan Friis, UC Davis, Davis California

110. Anyes Tafford, UC Irvine, Irvine CA

111. Avto Kharchilava, SUNY Buffalo, Buffalo NY

112. Georgia Karagiorgi Columbia University, NYC NY

113. Aaron Mislivec, University of Rochester, Rochester NY

114. William J Willis, Columbia University, NYC NY

115. Michael Murray, University of Kansas, Lawrence KS

116. Victor Yarba, Fermilab, Batavia IL

117. Florencia Canelli, University of Chicago/Fermilab, Chicago IL

118. Stefan M.Spanier, University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN

119. Pushpa Bhat, Fermilab, Batavia IL

120. James Wetzel, University of Iowa, Iowa City Ia

121. John Penwell, Indiana University, Bloomington IN

122. Igor Gorelov, University of New Mexico, Albequerque NM

123. Barbara Alvarez Gonzalez, MSU, East Lansing MI

124. Mauro Donega, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA

125. Angela Galtieri, LBL, Berkeley CA

126. Josehp F Muratore, BNL, Upton New York

127. Julie Managan, Rice University, Houston TX

128. Elizabeth H. Simmons, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

129. Elisa Pueschel, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

130. Ben Brau, U. Mass., Amherst MA

131. Jennifer Klay , California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo CA

132. Daryl Hare, Rutgers University, Springfield NJ

133. Daniel McDonald, Rice University, Houston TX

134. Sridhara Dasu, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI

135. Steven Blusk, Syracuse University, Syracuse NY

136. Fabrizio Margaroli, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN

137. John Strologas, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM

138. Nathan Goldschmidt, University of Florida, Gainesville Fl

139. Eva Halkiadakis, Rutgers, Picsataway NJ

140. Howard Haber UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz CA

141. Hongliang Liu, UC Riverside, Riverside CA

142. Stephen Parke, Fermilab, Batavia IL

143. Joachim Kopp, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

144. Alan Fisher, SLAC, Menlo Park CA

145. Jacobo Konigsberg, University of Florida, Gainesville FL

146. Zeno D. Greenwood, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston LA

147. Harrison B. Prosper, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL

148. Nikolai Smirnov, Yale University, New Haven CT

149. Nick Evans, University of Texas, Austin TX

150. Michael E. Peskin, SLAC, Stanford University, Stanford, California

151. Lawrence S. Pinsky, University of Houston, Houston, Texas

152. Bo Fenton-Olsen, LBL, Berkeley CA

153. Carlo Dallapiccola, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA

154. Ron Madras, LBL, Berkeley CA

155. Paddy Fox, Fermilab, Batavia IL

156. Lance Dixon, SLAC, Menlo Park CA

157. Douglas Wright, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Pleasanton CA

158. Ian Shipsey, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN

159. Reid Mumford, Salt lake City Utah

160. Pamela Klabbers, University of Wisconsin, Madison Wisconsin

161. Richard A. Vidal, Fermilab, Batavia IL

162. Ankush Mitra, Academia Sinica, Taipei Taiwan

163. Robert Hirosky, University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA

164. Chris Neu, University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA

165. Lina Galtieri, LBL, Berkeley CA

166. Marco Trovato, University of PISA, PISA Italy

167. Elizabeth Worcester, University of Chicago, Chicago IL

168. Leo Sabato, University of PISA, PISA Italy

169. Yu Zeng, Duke University, Durham NC

170. Yine Sun, Fermilab, Batavia IL

171. Viktoriya Zvoda, Fermilab, Batavia IL

172. Hatim Hegab, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater OK

173. Alexey Naumov, Fermilab, Batavia IL

174. Andrei Khilkevich, Fermilab, Batavia IL

175. Azeddine Kasmi, Baylor University, Waco TX

176. Robert Zwaska, Fermilab, Batavia IL

177. Alexander Romanenko, Fermilab, Batavia IL

178. Denise C. Ford, Northwestern University, Evanston IL

179. Kenichi Hatakeyama, Baylor University, Waco TX

180. Geum Bong Yu, Duke University, Durham NC

181. Tim Maxwell, Northern Illinois, Dekalb IL

182. Jun Guo, Columbia University, New York, NY

183. Liang Li, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA

184. Gianluca Petrillo, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

185. Dr. Tyler Dorland, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

186. Jesus Orduna, Rice University, Huston, TX

187. Mark A. Padilla, University of California Riverside, Riverside CA.

188. Zhenyu Ye, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

189. Andrew Kobach, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

190. Hang Yin, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

191. Ryan J. Hooper, Bradley University, Peoria, IL 61625

192. Ashish Kumar, SUNY Buffalo, NY

193. Kayle DeVaughan, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

194. Dennis Mackin, Rice University, Houston, TX

195. Avdhesh Chandra Rice University, Houston, TX

196. Juliette Alimena, Brown University, Providence, RI

197. Satish Desai Fermilab, Batavia, IL

198. Jadranka Sekaric University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas

199. Dale Johnston, University of Nebraska, Lincoln NE

200. Dr. Andrew Haas, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA.

201. Kathryn Tschann-Grimm, Stony Brook University Stony Brook, NY

202. Peter Renkel, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas.

203. Marc Buehler (PhD), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA

204. Oleksiy Atramentov, Research Associate, Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ

205. Shabnam Jabeen, Brown University Providence, RI

206. Subhendu Chakrabarti, State University of New York, Stony Brook

207. Alex Melnitchouk, University of Mississippi, University, MS

208. Michael Eads, University of Nebraska – Lincoln

209. Michael Wang, Unversity of Rochester, Rochester, NY

210. Carrie McGivern, University of Kansas

211. Diego Menezes, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL.

212. Ioannis Katsanos, University of Nebraska – Lincoln

213. Trang Hoang, Florida State University, Tallahassee, IL

214. Sung Woo, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

215. Sehwook Lee, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

216. Maiko Takahashi, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

217. Dmitry Bandurin, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida

218. Leah Welty-Rieger, Northwestern University, Evanston IL

219. Amitabha Das University of Arizona

220. Xuebing Bu, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL

221. Joseph G Haley Northeastern U Boston, MA

222. Bjoern Penning, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL

223. Andreas Jung, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

224. Daniel Boline , SUNY at Stony Brook, NY

225. Mandy Rominsky, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL

226. Michelle Prewitt, Rice University, Houston, TX

227. Kenneth Herner, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

228. Mark Williams, Fermilab International Fellow, Chicago, Il

229. Yunhe Xie, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

230. Gabriel Facini, Northeastern University, Boston, MA

231. John Backus Mayes, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA

232. Harold Nguyen, Univ. of California Riverside, Riverside, CA

233. Anton Kravchenko, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC

234. Ryan M White, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC

235. David Doll, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA

236. Bradley Wray, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX

237. Alexander Rakitin, California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA

238. Daniel Chao, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA

239. Alexander Palmer, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX

240. Gil Vitug, University of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA

241. Rajarshi Das, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

242. Chih-hsiang Cheng, California Inst. of Technology, San Jose, CA

243. Bertrand Echenard, California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA

244. Liang Sun, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH

245. Ada Rubin, Iowa State University, San Jose, Ca

246. Mikhail Dubrovin, SLAC, Menlo Park, CA

247. Andy Ruland, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX

248. Jaclyn Schwehr, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

249. Bryan Fulsom, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA

250. Chris Bouchard; University of Illinois; Urbana, IL

251. Daping Du; University of Iowa; Iowa City, IA

252. Gordan Krnjaic; Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD

253. Tim Linden; University of California at Santa Cruz; Santa Cruz, CA

254. Mark Mattson, Wayne State University, Detroit MI

255. Robert Craig Group, University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA

256. Artur Apresian, Caltech, Pasadena CA

257. Donatella Toretta, Fermilab, Batavia IL

258. Kate Scholberg, Dune University, Durham NC

259. Vito Di Benedetto, Università del Salento, Lecce, Italy.

260. Eric Feng, University of Chicago, Chicago IL

261. Tami Kramer, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois

262. Nicholas Hadley, The University of Maryland, College Park, MD

263. Paul Sheldon, Vanderbilt Univerisity, Nashville, TN

264. Daniela Bortoletto, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

265. Paul Padley, Rice University, Houston, TX.

266. Stanley Durkin, Ohio State University, Columbus OH

267. Kenneth Bloom, the University of Nebraska, Lincoln NE

268. Robert M. Harris, Fermilab, Batavia Illinois

269. Luc Demortier, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY

270. Greg Landsberg, Brown University, Providence RI

271. Tao Han Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

272. Manfred Paulini, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA

273. Nikos Varelas, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

274. Brad Cox, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA

275. J. William Gary, University of California, Riverside; Riverside, CA

276. Marcus Hohlmann, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL

277. Daniel Elvira, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

278. Jun Miyamoto, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

279. Wesley Smith, U. Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, WI

280. Norbert Neumeister, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN

281. Bruce A. Barnett, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

282. David Saltzberg, UCLA, Los Angeles, California

283. Cecilia E. Gerber, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL

284. Robert Clare, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA

285. Alan Weinstein, Caltech, Pasadena CA

286. Hans P. Paar, University of California, San Diego

287. Edwin Norbeck, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA

288. Claudio Campagnari, University Of California, Santa Barbara, CA

289. Yasar Onel, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA

290. Ren-yuan Zhu, Caltech, Pasadena, CA

291. Colin Jessop, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN

292. Christopher G. Tully, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

293. Marc Baarmand, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida

294. Liz Sexton-Kennedy, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

295. Dimitri Bourilkov, University of Florida, Gainesville

296. Guenakh Mitselmakher, Universtity of Florida, Gainesville, FL

297. Yuri Gershtein, Rutgers, Piscataway, NJ

298. William T. Ford, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

299. Pierre Ramond, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

300. Richard Lander, University of California, Davis, Davis CA

301. Jim Alexander, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

302. Pete Markowitz, Florida International University, Miami, FL

303. Frank Wuerthwein, UCSD, La Jolla, CA

304. Cecilia Gerber, Univ. of Illinois-Chicago, Chicago, IL

305. Mitchell Wayne, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN

306. Kaori Maeshima, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

307. David Stickland, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

308. Peter Elmer, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

309. Lothar Bauerdick, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL

310. Igor Vorobiev, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA

311. Frank Geurts, Rice University, Houston TX

312. Vasken Hagopian, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL

313. Sharon Hagopian, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL

314. David E. Pellett, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA

315. Richard Breedon, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA

316. Dick Loveless, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

317. Anders Ryd, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

318. Vivek Sharma, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Ca

319. Tim Doody, Fermilab, Batavia IL

320. Joe Incandela, UC Santa Barbara, Sanata Barbara, CA

321. Stanley J. Brodsky, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

322. Douglas Glenzinski, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

323. Marj Corcoran, Rice University, Houston, TX

324. Duncan Carlsmith, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI

325. Philip Baringer, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS

326. Jon A Bakken, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

327. Lawrence Sulak, Boston University, Boston, MA

328. Robert Harr, Wayne State University, Detroit MI

329. Virgil Barnes, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

330. George Alverson, Northeastern University, Boston, MA

331. Don Reeder, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI

332. Michael Schmitt, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

333. Kamal K. Seth, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

334. André de Gouvêa, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

335. Brian Heltsley, Cornell University, Cornell, NY

336. Suharyo Sumowidagdo, University of California, Riverside, Riverside CA

337. Weimin Wu, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois

338. Andriy Zatserklyaniy, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Mayaguez, PR

339. Philip D. Lawson, Boston University, Boston MA

340. Alexei Safonov, Texas A&M University, Colleeg Station TX

341. Christopher Neu, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia

342. Petar Maksimovic, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

343. Keith Ulmer, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

344. Selcuk Cihangir, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL

345. William Tanenbaum, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

346. Christopher Justus, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA.

347. Edmund Berry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

348. Aran Garcia-Bellido, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

349. Remigius K Mommsen, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

350. David Stuart, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA

351. Salvatore Rappoccio, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

352. Tia Miceli, University of California Davis, Davis CA

353. Sinjini Sengupta, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

354. Sorina Popescu, Fermilab, Batavia IL

355. Andrew Askew, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL

356. Frank Chlebana, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

357. Nhan Tran, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

358. Ted Kolberg, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN

359. Julia Yarba, Fermilab, Batavia IL

360. Kirk Arndt, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

361. Jeffrey Temple, University of Maryland, College Park, MD

362. Robert L Stone, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ

363. Aram Avetisyan, Brown University, Providence, RI

364. Dorian Kcira, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA

365. Valentin Kuznetsov, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

366. Nancy Marinelli, Univ. of Notre Dame – Notre Dame, IN

367. Jacob Anderson, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

368. Seth Cooper, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

369. Andres Florez, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN

370. Yuriy Pischalnikov, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

371. Seema Sharma, Fermilab, Batavia IL

372. Alexi Mestvirishvili, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA

373. Yuyi Guo, Fermilab, Batavia IL

374. Jorge L. Rodriguez, Florida International University, Miami, Florida

375. Oliver Gutsche, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

376. Jeffrey Kolb, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN

377. Francisco Yumiceva, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

378. Roy Joaquin Montalvo, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

379. Steven Lowette, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California

380. Igor Vodopiyanov, Florida Institute of Technology,Melbourne, FL

381. James Zabel, Rice University, Houston, TX

382. Yuriy Pakhotin, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

383. Jason Gilmore, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

384. Weiren Chou, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

385. J. Kandaswamy, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA

386. Jordan M. Tucker, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA

387. Hongxuan Liu, Baylor University, Waco, TX

388. Christoph Paus, MIT, Cambridge, MA

389. Armando LANARO, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

390. Tiesheng Dai, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

391. Chi M. Lei, Fermilab, Batavia, IL

392. George S.F. Stephans, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts

393. Ye Li, Northwestern University, Evanston IL

394. Will Flanagan, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

395. James Gainer, Northwestern University, Evanston IL

396. Kunal Kumar, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

397. Bernadette Heyburn, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

398. Don Summers, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS

399. Eric Vaandering, Fermilab, Batavia IL

400. Dimitris Varouchas, LBNL, Berkeley, CA

401. Burton DeWilde, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY

402. Josh Cogan, SLAC/Stanford, Palo Alto, CA (voter in Indianland, SC)

403. M. Saleem, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK

404. Paul Jackson, SLAC/Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA

405. Devin Harper, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

406. Mark Oreglia, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

407. Darren Price, Indiana University, Bloomington IN

408. Kevin Finelli, Duke University, Durham, NC

409. John Stupak, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY

410. James Degenhardt, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

411. Dilip Jana, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK

412. Krzysztof Sliwa, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts

413. Hayes Dee Meritt, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH

414. Steven Farrell, University of California, Irvine, CA

415. Joseph Tuggle, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

416. Tetteh Addy, Hampton University, Hampton, VA

417. Lashkar Kashif, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

418. Ning Zhou, University of California, Irvine, CA

419. Seth Zenz, University of California, Berkeley, CA

420. Michael Werth, University of California, Irvine, CA

421. Jianrong Deng, University California, Irvine, CA

422. Dominick Olivito, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

423. Joshua Moss, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH

424. Zachary Marshall, graduate of Calech, Malibu, CA

425. Andrew Nelson, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

426. Tim Andeen, Columbia University, New York, NY

427. Robert Calkins, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL

428. Caleb Lampen, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

429. Kevin Slagle, University of California, Irvine, CA

430. Louise Skinnari, University of California, Berkeley, CA

431. Fayez Mahmoud Abu-Ajamieh,Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL

432. Lauren Tompkins, University of California, Berkeley, CA

433. Kevin O’Connell, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA

434. Maxwell I. Scherzer, University of California, Berkeley, CA

435. Danial Slichter, University of California, Berkeley, CA

436. Woochun Park, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC

437. Jae Jun Kim, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC

438. Matthew Relich, University of California, Irvine, CA

439. Scott Aefsky, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA

440. Reza AmirArjomand, University of California, Irvine, CA

441. Shannon MacKenzie, University of Louisville, Louisville KY

442. Fabien Tarrade, Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY

443. Chad Suhr, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL

444. Xin Qian, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA

445. Jedrzej Biesiada, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

446. Corrinne mills, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

447. Brokk Toggerson, University of California, Irvine, CA

448. Stephanie Majewski, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY

449. Rajivalochan Subramaniam, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA

450. Andre M. Bach, UC Berkeley & Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA

451. Hideki Okawa, University of California, Irvine, CA

452. Zhen Yan, Boston University, Boston, MA

453. Robert Harrington, Boston University, Boston, MA

454. Emily Thompson, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

455. Christopher K. Vermilion, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

456. William Edson, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY

457. William S. Lockman, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064

458. Dmitri Smirnov, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY

459. James Saxon, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

460. Matthew Hickman, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

461. Kurt Brendlinger, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

462. Bradley Dober, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

463. Alex Long, Boston University, Boston, MA

464. Chris Potter, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR

465. Peter Radloff, University of Oregon, Eugene OR

466. W. Thomas Meyer, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

467. Usha Mallik, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA

468. Simona Malace, Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

469. German Colón, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

470. Therese Jones, University of California, Berkeley, CA

471. Jessica Metcalfe, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

472. Anze Slosar, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY

473. Sarah Newman,University of California, Berkeley, CA

474. Shirley Ho, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

475. Kyoko Yamamoto, Iowa State University, Ames, IA

476. Eyal Kazin, New York University, New York, NY

477. Alexander Tuna, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

478. Regina Caputo, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY

479. Alfred Goshaw, Duke University, Durham, NC

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