Wednesday, December 17, 2014

A New Beginning With Cuba - NYTimes.com

A New Beginning With Cuba - NYTimes.com:



 "Following months of secret negotiations with the Cuban government, President Obama on Wednesday announced sweeping changes to normalize relations with Havana, a bold move that ends one of the most misguided chapters in American foreign policy.

"



'via Blog this'

FACT SHEET: Charting a New Course on Cuba | The White House

FACT SHEET: Charting a New Course on Cuba | The White House:



"Today, the United States is taking historic steps to chart a new course in our relations with Cuba and to further engage and empower the Cuban people.  We are separated by 90 miles of water, but brought together through the relationships between the two million Cubans and Americans of Cuban descent that live in the United States, and the 11 million Cubans who share similar hopes for a more positive future for Cuba. "



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U.S. and Cuba, in Breakthough, Resume Diplomatic Relations - NYTimes.com

U.S. and Cuba, in Breakthough, Resume Diplomatic Relations - NYTimes.com:



"WASHINGTON — The United States will restore full diplomatic relations with Cuba and open an embassy in Havana for the first time in more than a half-century after the release of an American contractor held in prison for five years, American officials said Wednesday."



'via Blog this'

U.S. and Cuba to Start Talks on Normalizing Relations - NYTimes.com

U.S. and Cuba to Start Talks on Normalizing Relations - NYTimes.com:



"WASHINGTON — The United States will open talks with Cuba aimed at restoring full diplomatic relations and opening an embassy in Havana for the first time in more than a half century after the release of an American contractor held in prison for five years, American officials said Wednesday."



'via Blog this'

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Methane Is Found on Mars, Raising Hope of Life There Now - NYTimes.com

Methane Is Found on Mars, Raising Hope of Life There Now - NYTimes.com:



"SAN FRANCISCO — Life on Mars? Today? The notion may not be so far-fetched after all."



'via Blog this'

Obama Will Approve New Sanctions Against Russia for Ukraine Actions - NYTimes.com

Obama Will Approve New Sanctions Against Russia for Ukraine Actions - NYTimes.com:



"WASHINGTON — President Obama has decided to sign legislation imposing further sanctions on Russia and authorizing additional aid to Ukraine, despite concerns that it will complicate his efforts to maintain a unified front with European allies, the White House said on Tuesday."



'via Blog this'

Sunday, December 14, 2014

Dodd-Frank Damaged in the Budget Bill - NYTimes.com

Dodd-Frank Damaged in the Budget Bill - NYTimes.com:



"On Wall Street, 2010 was the year of “Obama rage,” in which financial tycoons went ballistic over the president’s suggestion that some bankers helped cause the financial crisis. They were also, of course, angry about the Dodd-Frank financial reform, which placed some limits on their wheeling and dealing."



'via Blog this'

Undocumented Immigrants Line Up for Door Opened by Obama - NYTimes.com

Undocumented Immigrants Line Up for Door Opened by Obama - NYTimes.com:



"LOS ANGELES — They pushed strollers, tugged toddlers and streamed into the convention center in the heart of this city on Sunday, thousands of immigrants here illegally and anxious to find out if they could gain protection from deportation under executive actions by President Obama."



'via Blog this'

Saturday, December 13, 2014

Thomas Friedman

I WAS just about to go with a column that started like this: When they write the history of the global response to climate change, 2014 could well be seen as the moment when the balance between action and denial tipped decisively toward action. That’s thanks to the convergence of four giant forces: São Paulo, Brazil, went dry; China and the United States together went green; solar panels went cheap; and Google and Apple went home.

NYT

196 Nations Near Preliminary Climate Change Deal - NYTimes.com

196 Nations Near Preliminary Climate Change Deal - NYTimes.com:



"LIMA, Peru — Negotiators from around the globe were haggling Saturday over the final elements of a draft climate change deal that would, for the first time in history, commit every nation to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions — yet would still fall far short of what is needed to stave off the dangerous and costly early impacts of global warming."



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Friday, December 12, 2014

Strange Climate Event: Warmth Toward U.S. - NYTimes.com

Strange Climate Event: Warmth Toward U.S. - NYTimes.com:



"LIMA, Peru — When it comes to global warming, the United States has long been viewed as one of the world’s worst actors. American officials have been booed and hissed during international climate talks, bestowed with mock “Fossil of the Day” awards for resisting treaties, and widely condemned for demanding that other nations cut their fossil fuel emissions while refusing, year after year, to take action at home.

"



'via Blog this'

In Mexico, a Growing Gap Between Political Class and Calls for Change - NYTimes.com

In Mexico, a Growing Gap Between Political Class and Calls for Change - NYTimes.com:



"MEXICO CITY — As the Nobel Peace Prize was being awarded in Oslo this week, a young man dashed on stage, unfurled a Mexican flag streaked with red paint and begged for help for his country because more than 40 college students have been missing for months after clashing with the police."



'via Blog this'

Flood-Causing Deluge Amounts to Just Drops in California Drought - NYTimes.com

Flood-Causing Deluge Amounts to Just Drops in California Drought - NYTimes.com:



 "The strong Pacific storm that left Northern California a sodden mess will not have much impact on the state’s historic drought, meteorologists said Friday."



'via Blog this'

Thursday, December 11, 2014

The C Programming Language by K&R

Chapter 1: A tutorial introduction

Let us begin with a quick introduction to C. Our aim is to show the essential elements of the language in real programs, but without getting bogged down in details, formal rules, and exceptions. At this point, we are not trying to be complete or even precise (save that the examples are meant to be correct). We want to get you as quickly as possible to the point where you can write useful programs, and to do that we have to concentrate on the basics: variables, and constants, arithmetic, control flow, functions, and the rudiments of input and output. We are quite intentionally leaving out of this chapter features of C which are of vital importance for writing bigger programs. These include pointers, structures, most of C's rich set of operators, several control flow statements, and myriad details.

This approach has its drawbacks, of course. Most notable is that the complete story on any  particular language feature is not found in a single place, and the tutorial, by being brief, may also mislead. And because they can not use the full power of C, the examples are not as concise and elegant as they might be. We have tried to minimize these effects, but be warned.

Another drawback is that later chapters will necessarily repeat some of this chapter. We hope that the repetition will help you more than it annoys.

In any case, experienced programmers should be able to extrapolate from the material in this chapter to their own programming needs. Beginners should supplement it by writing small, similar programs of their own. Both groups can use it as a framework on which to hang the more detailed descriptions that begin in Chapter 2.

Chapter 2: Types, operators and expressions

Variables and constants are the basic data objects manipulated in a program. Declarations list the variables to be used, and state what type they have and perhaps what their initial values are. Operators specify what is to be done to them. Expressions combine variables and constants to produce new values. These are the topics of this chapter.

Chapter 3: Control flow

The control flow statements of a language specify the order in which computations are done. We have already met the most common control flow constructions of C in earlier examples, here we will complete the set, and be more precise about the ones discussed before.

Chapter 4: Functions and program structure

Functions break large computing tasks into smaller ones, and enable people to build on what others have done instead of starting over from scratch. Appropriate functions can often hide details of operation from parts of the program that don't need to know about them, thus clarifying the whole, and easing the pain of making changes.

C has been designed to make functions efficient and easy to use; C programs generally consist of numerous small functions rather than a few big ones. A program may reside on one or more source files in any convenient way; the source files may be compiled separately and loaded together, along with previously compiled functions from libraries. We will not go into that process here, since the details vary according to the local system.

Most programmers are familiar with "library" functions for input and output (getchar, putchar) and numerical computation (sin, cos, sqrt). In this chapter we will show more about writing new functions.

Chapter 5: Pointers and arrays

A pointer is a variable that contains the address of another variable. Pointers are very much used in C, partly because they are sometimes the only way to express a computation, and partly because they usually lead to more compact and efficient code than can be obtained in other ways.

Pointers have been lumped with the goto statement as a marvelous way to create impossible-to-understand programs. This is certainly true when they are used carelessly, and it is easy to create pointers that point somewhere unexpected. With discipline, however, pointers can also be used to achieve clarity and simplicity. This is the aspect that we will try to illustrate.

Chapter 6: Structures

A structure is a collection of one or more variables, possibly of different types, grouped together under a single name for convenient handling. (Structures are called "records" in some languages, most notably Pascal.)

The traditional example  of a structure is the payroll record: an "employee" is described by a set of attributes such as name, address, social security number, salary, etc. Some of these in turn could be structures: a name has several components, as does and address and even a salary.

Structures help to organize complicated data, particularly in large programs, because in many situations they permit a group of related variables to be treated as a unit instead of as separate entities. In this chapter we will try to illustrate how structures are used.  The programs we will use are bigger than many of the others in the book, but still of moderate size.

Chapter 7: Input and output

Input and output facilities are not part of the C language so we have de-emphasized them in our presentation thus far. Nonetheless, real programs do interact with their environment in much more complicated ways than those we have shown before. In this chapter we will describe "the standard I/O library," a set of functions designed to provide a standard I/O system for C programs. The functions are intended to present a convenient programming interface, yet reflect only operations that can be provided on most modern operating systems. The routines are efficient enough that users should seldom feel the need to circumvent them "for efficiency" regardless of how critical the application. Finally, the routines are meant to be "portable," in the sense that they will exist in compatible form on any system where C exists, and that programs which confine their system interactions to facilities provided by the standard library can be moved from one system to another essentially without change.

We will not try to describe the entire I/O library here; we are more interested in showing the essentials of writing C programs that interact with their operating environments.

Monday, December 08, 2014

Browser Wars




In the early 90s, Mosaic was a software product for scientific visualization. Marc Andreessen , developed it at the University of Illinois, at Urbana/Champaign. It was a tool to help astrophysicists with big data sets, both the result of calculations, and observations. Soon it was realized that this, so-called "browser", could help the general public to navigate the Internet, which had recently been freed by the Department of Defense, at the end of the Cold War. There was a big increase in the number of Internet Service Providers. I got my first home connection through America Online, which I still use.

To some, it became clear, that personal computer companies, were in danger of becoming obsolete. Thus we went from the Cold War, to the Browser Wars.

The main players were Microsoft, and Netscape, the company spearheaded by Andreessen. Netscape lost to the monopolistic forces behind Microsoft. Nevertheless, due to the lack of vision of Bill Gates and Paul Allen, two young scientists from Stanford University, Sergei Brin, and Larry Page, created a killer application, the Search Engine powering Google.

Now Google is in its way to becoming the bigger company, that Microsoft never was.

SNMP Config for CUPS

snmp.conf(5)                                                                                   Apple Inc.                                                                                  snmp.conf(5)

NAME
       snmp.conf - snmp configuration file for cups

DESCRIPTION
       The  snmp.conf  file  configures  how  the standard CUPS network backends (http, https, ipp, ipps, lpd, snmp, and socket) access printer information using SNMPv1 and is normally located in the
       /etc/cups directory. Each line in the file can be a configuration directive, a blank line, or a comment. Comment lines start with the # character.

       The Community and DebugLevel directives are used by all backends. The remainder apply only to the SNMP backend (cups-snmp(8)).

DIRECTIVES
       The following directives are understood by the CUPS network backends. Consult the on-line help for detailed descriptions:

       Address @IF(name)

       Address @LOCAL

       Address address
            Sends SNMP broadcast queries to the specified address(es). There is no default for the broadcast address.

       Community name
            Specifies the community name to use. Only a single community name may be specified. The default community name is "public".

       DebugLevel number
            Specifies the logging level from 0 (none) to 3 (everything). Typically only used for debugging (thus the name). The default debug level is 0.

       DeviceURI "regular expression" device-uri [... device-uri]
            Specifies one or more device URIs that should be used for a given make and model string. The regular expression is used to match the detected make and model, and the  device  URI  strings
            must be of the form "scheme://%s[:port]/[path]", where "%s" represents the detected address or hostname. There are no default device URI matching rules.

       HostNameLookups on

       HostNameLookups off
            Specifies whether the addresses of printers should be converted to hostnames or left as numeric IP addresses. The default is "off".

       MaxRunTime seconds
            Specifies the maximum number of seconds that the SNMP backend will scan the network for printers. The default is 120 seconds (2 minutes).

SEE ALSO
       cups-snmp(8),
       http://localhost:631/help

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright 2007-2013 by Apple Inc.

23 April 2012                                                                                     CUPS                                                                                     snmp.conf(5)
 Manual page cups-snmp.conf(5) line 1/51 (END) (press h for help or q to quit)


Mike Sweet

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